Kayan lambu

Yadda za a warke cucumbers a cikin wani greenhouse

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Ma'aikatan lambu sukan yi la'akari da gaskiyar cewa greenhouse cucumbers, wanda suke so, shafi cututtuka da kwari. Halin da ake ciki a cikin gida, yana taimakawa wajen inganta ci gaban cututtuka. Rashin gwagwarmaya da wadannan matsalolin wani ɓangare ne na kula da kayan lambu. Yi la'akari da cutar cucumbers a cikin greenhouse da kuma kwatanta hanyoyin da magani, da kuma samar da hotuna da zai taimaka da sauri gane "maƙiyi". Nan da nan ka samo kuma gano cutar ko ƙwayar cuta, da ƙwayar lafiya da kyawawan gonaki za ka karba.

Dalilin

Kwayoyin greenhouse sun fi sauƙi ga fungal, na kwayan cuta da cututtukan cututtukan cututtuka fiye da kayan lambu da aka dasa a cikin ƙasa. Abubuwan da ake bukata don ci gaba da cututtuka da kuma yaduwar kwari sune abubuwan da ke faruwa:

  • microclimate artificial (rashin dacewa yanayi da ake bukata don ci gaban al'ada da girma);
  • Yanayin yanayin yanayin rashin daidaituwa (sauyin yanayi da sauyin yanayi a cikin greenhouse);
  • high zafi;
  • ruwan sanyi ban ruwa, wuce kima watering, m spraying na shuke-shuke;
  • gaban zane; rashin haske; rashin abinci na gina jiki;
  • watsi da ka'idodin juyawa na amfanin gona (sauyawa da sauya shafin da ƙasa don dasa shuki);
  • dasa shuki seedlings a cikin ƙasa, inda mummunan magabata na kokwamba (kankana, guna, zucchini, squash, kabewa) a baya girma;
  • Daidaitawa tsabtatawa;
  • ganowar marigayi na shuke-shuke da aka shafi.

Shin kuna sani? Na farko har abada greenhouses na shekara-zagaye namo na kokwamba bushes an gina a d ¯ a Roma. Sarki Roman na Tiberius (42 BC AD AD-37 AD) yana so ya ci wadannan kayan lambu a kowace rana.

Babban cututtuka na greenhouse cucumbers da magani

Yawancin cututtuka da suka shafi al'adu a cikin yanayin greenhouse sune: anthracnose, powdery mildew, downy mildew, launin toka da fari, bacteriosis, tushen rot. Wadannan da wasu cututtuka na cucumbers, yanzu muna duba dalla-dalla, da kuma samar da hoto na kamuwa da cuta a kowane hali.

Anthracnose

Anthracnose - cututtukan da aka yi da naman gwari Colletotrichum lagenarium. Naman gwari yana cigaba da yalwata a cikin lokaci na vegetative. Gane ƙwayar cutar a kan launin launin ruwan kasa mai launin ruwan kasa a kan zane-zane da cotyledons. A hankali, sassan da suka shafi abin da ya shafa sun zama ƙyama da crumble. A harbe ya bayyana a cikin zurfin spots rufe tare da ruwan hoda-jan ƙarfe gamsai. Idan cutar ta cutar da 'ya'yan itace, to, su ma sun samar da takunkumi a cikin hanyar ulcers. A cikin yanayin yanayin zafi mai tsawo, waɗannan ɗakunan suna rufe ta da ruwan hoda, sa'annan su juya baki.

Gwajiyar kayan lambu ya zama m, kuma a lokacin ajiya da sufuri suna rot. Don cin irin wannan kayan lambu ba wanda ake so.

Lokacin gano wadannan alamomi, abin da ya shafi abin ya shafa ya fi kyau a cire shi nan da nan, kuma inabin zaiyi aiki da 0.4% chlorine dioxide. Zaka kuma iya amfani da bayani na 1% na Bordeaux cakuda. Anyi aikin ne a cikin kwanaki 10.

Mealy dew

Mafarki mai yalwa (The mycelium shine wakili na Erysiphales) yana daya daga cikin cututtuka da yawa na cucumbers a cikin ƙasa mai kariya. A cikin shuke-shuke da suka kamu da cutar, an lura da mutuwar ganyayyaki, kuma an rage yawan amfanin. A mataki na farko na cutar za a iya gano shi ta hanyar hasken haske a kan foliage. A hankali, ƙuƙwalwar ciwon ƙwayar cuta, foda mai yaduwa yana yadawa zuwa stalks da stalks, kuma ganye suna juya launin ruwan kasa kuma sun mutu.

Idan ka sami alamun furannin foda, cire sassan shuke-shuke da suka shafi tushen kamuwa da cuta, to sai kuyi amfani da ƙwayoyin da ke dauke da sulfur (Topsin, Bayleton, Tiovit Jet, Caratan, colloidal sulfur). Kyakkyawan sakamako yana bada mullein jiko. An sake sarrafawa ne kawai bayan makonni 1-2.

Yana da muhimmanci! Ya kamata a bincika magungunan cututtukan fuka a kusa da windows, dakunan turanan da kuma kofa masu kifi.

Perinosporosis (downy mildew)

Downy mildew ko perinosporosis- cututtuka mai hatsari da lalacewar naman gwari Plasmopara ya shafi yawancin launi. Da zarar a kan shuka, ƙwayar mycelium na perinospora tana tasowa, ta hana shi da kayan abinci. Iyakimakon zai iya ci gaba a cikin kokwamba na tsawon shekaru. A gefen takarda, launin launin launin ruwan kasa-launin ruwan fari. A tsawon lokaci, waɗannan ulcers suna cigaba da girma tare. A gefen gefen takardar akwai lokacin farin ciki mai launin toka-m. Foliage ta kafe, wrinkles da dama.

Don shawo kan cutar, dakatar da ruwa, yayyafa ƙasa da itace ash. Rufe gonar da kyau a daren da iska su a lokacin rana. Yada bayani game da Phytosporin. Bar a garesu a hankali sarrafa Bordeaux cakuda ko jan karfe-sabulu emulsion.

Kamar yadda hanyoyin da aka yi amfani da su suna amfani da kefir tare da aidin ko madara m.

Gishiri mai laushi

Gishiri mai laushi - kamuwa da cuta sakamakon shan kashi na bushes tare da Botrytis cinerea mycelium. Mycelium yana cutar da ovaries, ganye, furanni da 'ya'yan itatuwan kokwamba. Kamuwa da cuta yana nuna yanayin bayyanar launin toka mai launin fure a kan 'ya'yan itatuwa, wanda zai iya girma tare.

Sassan tsire-tsire masu kamuwa da launi na buƙata ya kamata a cire su, su kama wani ɓangare na harbe mai kyau. Wuraren da aka yanka tare da lemun tsami, jan karfe sulfate ko murmushi.

Tare da maganin rashin lafiya mai rauni zai iya zama cakuda Bordeaux. A game da bayyanar rot a kan bishiyoyi, masu sana'a suna yin amfani da ladabi masu fashewa. Ana amfani da kwayoyi masu amfani da: "Rovral", "Khom", "Riba", "Fundazol", "Ditan M-45", "Ordan", "Skor".

Farin fari

Farin fari ko sclerotinia (Botrytis cinerea mycelium shine wakili mai lalacewa) shi ne kamuwa da kamuwa da kowa wanda ke shafar yawan amfanin gonar kayan lambu a cikin yanayi na greenhouse. Abubuwa da ɓoye suke ɓoye, sun hallaka kwayoyin tsire-tsire, suna haifar da yarinya ya mutu. Rashin kamuwa da cuta yana shafar shuka kokwamba: cututtuka, harbe, ganye da 'ya'yan itatuwa na cucumbers an lalace.

Alamar cutar sclerotinia wani fata ne mai launin fata da furen fata, kama da gashin auduga. Alamar tana kara tausayi kan lokaci kuma ya zama ƙaura. Kwayoyin da aka shafa sun juya baƙar fata da kuma ruɗa.

Matakan tsaro sunyi kama da hanyoyin da ake amfani da su don kawar da launin toka. Duk da haka, a wannan yanayin, in Bugu da kari, dusting na harbe da kuma ganye tare da jan karfe-alli foda ya kamata a za'ayi. An gudanar da taron a matakin farko na ci gaban naman gwari.

Bacteriosis

Bacteriosis ko Hanya mai kusurwa - Cutar da aka lalace ta hanyar naman gwari Pseudomonas lachrymans. Da farko, ana samun ƙananan ƙwayoyin launin ruwan kasa a kan cotyledons, kuma an rufe shi da suturar angular. Lotsuna suna duban ruwa da man fetur. Daga baya, kamuwa da cutar sun juya launin ruwan kasa, ya bushe kuma ya ɓace. 'Ya'yan' ya'yan itace kuma alamun da ake nunawa na kusurwar angular: kokwamba yana kama da shi ta tsuntsaye.

Lokacin da alamun farko na bacteriosis sun bayyana a kan ganye ko cotyledons, da farko kana buƙatar kawar da kamuwa da kwayoyin cutar ko seedlings. Sa'an nan nan da nan bi da ƙwayoyin bishiyar Bordeaux ko tsaka-tsakin masu fadi.

Tushen tushen

Tushen tushen - mummunan cututtuka na cucumbers, marasa jin daɗi ga matasa da tsofaffin tsire-tsire. Sau da yawa cutar tana rinjayar shuke-shuke da ya raunana. Ana bayyana a cikin yankin basal, wannan kwayoyin yana haifar da bushewa da mutuwar dukkanin tushen tsarin. A sakamakon haka, ƙananan bishiyoyi sunyi launin rawaya, sannan daji ya mutu.

Shoots nuna rashin ƙarfi girma. Akwai babban yawan mutuwar tsire-tsire. A cikin kamuwa da kwayoyin, alamu masu launin ruwan kasa suna jingina akan abin wuya, wanda hanzari ya ninka. Yawancin lokaci, harbe ya zama mai zurfi, kuma matasa suna bushe. Saplings sauƙi karya daga ƙasa. Kwayar cuta ce mai sauki don gane ko da a kan ganye. Sun lalace kuma an rufe shi da kananan launin ruwan kasa.

Don shawo kan lalacewar tushen, ana bi da tsire-tsire tare da fassarar kwayoyin halitta: Trichodermin, Pseudobacterin-2, da Baktofit.

Yana da muhimmanci! Dukkanin magungunan da ke sama sunyi amfani dasu kamar yadda aka umarce su.

Greenhouse kwaro iko

Tare da cututtukan cututtuka, your greenhouse cucumbers iya kai hari kan kwari-parasites. Kokwamba vines suna fi sau da yawa shafi aphids, whitefly da gizo-gizo mites. A cikin yaki da kowane kwaro yana da nuances. Nan gaba, zamuyi nazarin wannan ƙananan kwari na cucumbers, da fahimtar bayyanar cututtuka, kazalika da hotuna na lahani, da kuma nazarin hanyoyin da suke yi.

Gourd Aphid

Ƙasar melon aphidciyar da tsire-tsire, tsarke su kuma yada kwayoyin cuta daban-daban. Tsawon jiki na kwari yana da 2 mm. Black launi ko duhu. Wadannan ƙananan kwari suna iya cika bushes a cikin gajeren lokaci, da kuma halakar da amfanin gona. Na farko, mai tushe ya bar shrivel, sannan ya mutu.

Zaka iya kallon gwanin aphids a baya na ganye da kuma kan tsirrai na tsire-tsire a cikin Yuli Agusta. Maganin aphids a kan cucumbers a cikin greenhouse yanayi ne weeds, don haka kana bukatar ka rabu da su a cikin wani dace lokaci. An yi jita-jita na barkono mai launin toka da ƙurar taba (30 g barkono da 200 g mud din taba lita lita 10 na ruwan zafi) an yi tasiri sosai wajen magance aphids a cikin greenhouse. Rasu shirye-shiryen game da rana, iri, to, ku yi 1 tbsp. l ruwa gidaje sabulu da 3 tbsp. l itace resin. Dole ne a sake maimaita mako daya bayan an fara yin gyaran kafa na farko. Ka yi ƙoƙarin tafiyar da hanyar tsakanin layuka a cikin greenhouse. Game da shirye-shirye na sinadaran, ana yin amfani da Strela ko Inter-vir.

Whitefly greenhouse

Farin tashi - kwari mai cutarwa, sau da yawa a kan tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire. Wannan karamin ƙwayar yana da fuka-fukai na launin launi, kuma jikinsa yana rufe shi da farin kakin zuma. Fuskarin na iya lalata shuka a cikin gajeren lokaci. Tana zaune a kan ganyen cucumbers, shayar da ruwan 'ya'yan itace daga gare su da kuma nuna ma'anar abincin sugary. Musamman ma'anar gungu ana kallo akan kasan takardar. Sa'an nan kuma harbe da ganye sun juya baƙi kuma suka mutu.

A kan whitefly, magani mai mahimmanci tare da samfurin nazarin kwayoyin halitta (0.2%). Ana gudanar da tsari sau 2-3 a lokacin dukan tsire-tsire.

Yana da muhimmanci! Kada ka ƙara sabbin kayan ganyayyaki zuwa ga kokwamba a cikin greenhouse. Sawdust yana ɗauke da alli daga ƙasa kuma ya rage shi. Yi amfani kawai sawdust da ya lain don akalla 1 shekara.
Don kare greenhouse daga whitefly, rufe duk kofofin da vents a daya gauze Layer. Sa'an nan kuma shigar da ɓoye na musamman. Don haka, ana bukatar fentin launin plywood a launin fari ko launin launi mai laushi ga whitefly. Sa'an nan kuma man shafawa da plywood tare da cakuda rosin, man fetur da man fetur.

Hanyar da aka tabbatar da kayan shafawa ta bar ruwa mai tsabta. Bayan yin wanka, kayan shafa, peat ko humus ya kamata a kara da ita a cikin ƙasa.

A cikin yaki da whitefly a kan cucumbers yi amfani da saniya, alade, tumaki, da kuma doki zomo humus.

Gizo-gizo mite

Ana amfani da tsire-tsire na greenhouse. gizo-gizo mite. Tare da kowace karuwa a cikin iska (daga 20 ° C da sama), adadin ticks yana ƙaruwa. A kwaro ya ci biyu seedlings da kuma girma vines. Da isowa daga cikin gizo-gizo gizo-gizo yana da sauƙin ƙaddara: a kan ganyayyaki za ka iya ganin shafin yanar gizo, wanda kullun ke motsawa.

Tsayayya da gizo-gizo gizo-gizo, akwai wasu kwayoyi da ake kira acaricides. Duk da haka, wannan mummunar abu ne mai yiwuwa ga jaraba ga magungunan kashe qwari, sabili da haka, dole ne a maye gurbin kudi da sababbin lokaci. Clipper, Fitoverm, Bicol, Talstar, Akarin da sauransu ya kamata a ambaci su a matsayin tasiri.

Shin kuna sani? Yakin da gizo-gizo mite - babu sauki aiki. Da farko dai kana bukatar kawar da mace. Shekarun rayuwarta ba ta wuce wata ɗaya ba, duk da haka, a wannan lokacin mace tana da lokaci don sanya qwai da yawa. An kuma san cewa mace na daya daga cikin jinsunan mite yana iya sanya kwanciya dubu 15-20 a rayuwarta. Kadan daga cikin dabba duniya na iya yin alfaharin irin wannan samuwa.

Rigakafin

Yi hanzari wajen aiwatar da matakan da za su hana fitarwa da yaduwar cututtuka daban-daban da kwari a kan cucumbers a cikin yanayin greenhouse. Tsarin kariya shine kamar haka:

  • kaucewa lokaci da kuma lalacewar kamuwa da cutar, ƙananan sassa na shuke-shuke, da 'ya'yan itace maras kyau;
  • disinfection na dukan greenhouse, ciki har da ƙasa, kayayyakin aiki da wasu kayan aiki;
  • rike mai kyau microclimate (zafin jiki - 23-25 ​​° C, iska mai zafi - 80-85%);
  • matsakaici watering na kasar gona;
  • ci gaba da juyayi na gona (sauye-gyaren lokaci);
  • shuka shuka kamuwa da cuta-resistant iri da kuma hybrids;
  • dumama da gyaran nau'in (domin disinfection, tsaba ya kamata a soaked a cikin 1% bayani na potassium permanganate kafin shuka);
  • saukowa a cikin ƙasa da aka shirya da kuma mai tsanani;
  • yin aiki na lokaci na kayan abinci;
  • yin amfani da iska a cikin daki na yau da kullum; Tsayawa gadaje mai tsabta.
Cututtuka na cucumbers a cikin greenhouse a mataki na farko sun fi sauƙi don sarrafawa, kuma magungunan mutane suna dace da maganin su. Don shawo kan prophylaxis, ana amfani da bayani a kan madara (1 l madara, sau 30 na iodine, 20 g na saitunan gidan salama).

Muna fatan cewa wannan abu zai taimake ka ka magance matsaloli masu yawa na greenhouse cucumbers kuma samun karimci mai girbi. Kulawa da kyau na cucumbers, dacewar rigakafin zai rage kusan zero da alama na halakar cututtuka na cucumbers da kwari.

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