Shuka amfanin gona

Zama a kan taga ko yadda za a shuka wani orchid a gida?

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Orchids ya fito daga rainforests na Afirka. A Turai, furanni, wanda aka gane a matsayin alamar ƙauna, ya bayyana a karni na 19 kuma ya lashe magoya baya. A halin yanzu, ƙwayoyin orchids suna girma a ko'ina sai dai Antarctica. Akwai fiye da goma sha biyar nau'o'in, wanda aka cika a kowace shekara tare da sabon iri iri iri.

Daga cikin orchids akwai wasu nau'i masu wuya da kuma marasa lafiya, musamman musamman don yanayin gida. Sunan ya zo ne daga tsohuwar Girkanci. kalmomin "kwai" saboda irin wannan nau'in rhizome.

Abubuwan kulawa

  • A lokacin lokacin ci gaba - a ƙarshen hunturu da kuma bazara - orchids yana bukatar haske mai kyau da kuma watering.
  • A yayin rani mai zurfi - a lokacin rani - orchids yana bukatar kulawa da kyau da gyaran hawan. Akwai takin gargajiya na musamman don samar da shuka tare da muhimman abubuwan gina jiki a lokacin girma.
  • A karshen lokacin rani pseudobulbs fara ripen da furanni an dage farawa. A wannan lokaci, rage yawan zafin jiki zuwa 4-6 ° C kuma rage watering.
  • A lokacin hunturu da hunturu, kochids sun shiga wani wuri na hutawa da furanni (yadda za'a kula da orchid a lokacin hunturu-hunturu?). Yawancin jinsuna suna farawa a farkon lokacin dormant ko lokacin dormancy. A cikin hunturu, kulawa yana haɓaka haske da rage watering.

Mun ba da labarin game da asirin abubuwan da ke tattare da kulawa da orchid a gida.

Waɗanne iri ne suke samuwa don tabbatarwa gida?

Wasu nau'o'in orchids suna girma sosai a cikin yanayin gida.:

  • Cattleya;
  • kullun;
  • cambria;
  • vanda;
  • denbrobium;
  • zygapetalum
Hankali: Mafi shahararren a halin yanzu shi ne mafi kyawun nau'ikan orchids - phalaenopsis.

Ta yaya tsire-tsire ke girma a kan sikelin masana'antu?

Orchids girma a cikin greenhouses da greenhouses na Thailand da kuma Holland ne mafiya sayar a kasuwar Rasha. (Bayanai game da abin da za a yi bayan sayen orchid da kuma yadda za a kula da shi a gida za'a iya samuwa a nan). Kwanan nan, an yi amfani da gonar orchids a cikin gine-gine a ko'ina. Tun lokacin da aka dasa shuki har sai bayyanarsa a kan ɗakunan na kusan shekara guda. Girman kochids yana yiwuwa a hanyoyi da dama:

  • vegetative (rabo na sassa);
  • "yara" (kwararan fitila);
  • iyali (daga tsaba);
  • ginin (saboda rarraba nama a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje).

Tsarin tsire-tsire na shuka ya fara tare da mataki "yara":

  1. "Babies" an sanya su a cikin tarin da suke girma tsawon makonni 30 a ƙarƙashin kula da ma'aikatan greenhouse.
  2. Sa'an nan kuma an haɗa su da hannu a cikin tukunya mai haske, inda za su yi girma a cikin greenhouse.
  3. Ana sanya lakabin da bayani game da shuka (nau'in, canza launin) a kan tukunya da kuma aikawa zuwa wani gine-gine inda za su girma tsawon makonni 10.
  4. Sa'an nan kuma an sanya kogi zuwa wurin bitar kuma an sanya shi cikin tukunya na tukunya na musamman inda suke da makonni 16.
  5. Bayan wannan lokacin, an sanya su a cikin tukunya mai girma sannan su kasance a cikinta har zuwa farkon ci gaban peduncle (3-4).
  6. A mataki na karshe, ana sanya kochids a cikin wani "sanyi" na musamman na greenhouse, tare da zafin jiki na 19 ° C.

Tsarin doka na girma kochids shine: tsarin iska mai kyau, samar da iska na isasshen zazzabi da zafi; isasshen hasken don kara yadda ya dace da tsari na photosynthesis; samar da kyakkyawan ƙasa da takin mai magani.

Menene ya kamata yanayi ya kasance ga nau'in gida?

  1. Zazzabi. Orchids ya bambanta a thermophilicity. Dabbobin gida sun fi son yawan zazzabi: a lokacin rani - 18-23 ° C, a cikin hunturu 15-18 ° C.
  2. Humidity. Don ban ruwa, ana amfani da ruwa (mai laushi), wanda yake da nauyin digiri fiye da ɗakin zafin jiki. Watering yana fi dacewa zuwa matsakaici - daga sau ɗaya zuwa sau uku a mako a lokacin lokacin girma, don haka kada a fara lalata tushen. Ruwa ya kamata ba damuwa cikin ƙasa. Yawan zafi bai kamata ya wuce 70% ba, idan bai isa ba, ya kamata a yi shuka tare da kwalba mai laushi.
  3. Haskewa. Orchid ne tsinkayen haske. A lokacin rani, yana jin dadi a kan wani shinge mai haske - don kada ya ƙone, ana amfani da fim na musamman na musamman (zaka iya gano inda za'a sanya orchids a cikin ɗaki, a nan). Don ƙarfafa namo a cikin hunturu, ana yin hasken wuta tare da hasken wuta na wucin gadi.
Yana da muhimmanci: Idan akwai rashin haske, ganye suna haske da kuma shimfiɗa.

Bayanin sharuɗɗa da sharuɗɗan orchid, karanta a cikin wannan abu.

Umurni na mataki-mataki don farawa yadda za a yi girma a flower

Ƙasa da shirye-shiryen tanki

A filastik (mafi mahimmanci) ko yalwa mai yalwata mai yalwa da isasshen sarari don tsarin tushen, wanda aka tanadar da ramuka don ruwa, ya dace a matsayin akwati. Ƙungiyar tukunya an ɗaura shi da layi mai laushi (ƙananan pebbles, tilas kwakwalwan kwamfuta).

Ƙasa ƙasa ya kamata kunshi kayan da ba su riƙe dashi: gansakuka, rassan bishiyoyi, hawan, gwangwani, yumbu mai laka. Ba a kara gonar gona a ƙasa.

Fasaha

  • Daga tushen (ko ta rarraba daji). Yadda za a shuka shuka daga tushe? An haɗu da wannan ƙungiya tare da shirya dashi na tsoho daji. An cire katako daga cikin tukunya, an wanke asalinsu daga ƙasa. Babban (albasa) an ƙaddara, wanda aka raba tare da wuka mai kaifi domin akalla 4 pseudobulbs kasance akan kowanne sassan. Ana sarrafa sassan da gawayi kuma aka bushe. Kowane mãkirci ana shuka shi a cikin tukunyar da aka raba. A karo na farko, maimakon watering ne spraying.
  • Bulb Orchid. Yaya za a shuka shi daga kwararan fitila da aka saya cikin shagon? Duk kananan pseudobulbs an yanke tare da wuka; an yanka cututtuka tare da gawayi kuma an sanya kwararan fitila a cikin ganga.
  • Daga cuttings. An harbe wani tayi (10-15 cm) tare da wuka mai bakararre daga tsirrai tare da rassa biyu ko fiye. Ana sarrafa sassan da fungicide da gawayi. Ana sanya cuttings a cikin wani wuri a kwance a cikin gilashin filastik da aka cika da gansakuka. Lokacin da asalinsu suka bayyana, an dasa sassa a cikin tukwane. Ana gudanar da tsari a cikin bazara.
  • Daga yara. Baby ya bayyana a kan kara a babban zafi da zafin jiki (sama da 28 ° C). An raba jariri lokacin da ganye ya kai girman 3 cm, kuma an nannade shi da ganga. Da zarar tsirrai ya tsiro 5 cm daga tushe na yaro, an sanya shi cikin tukunya da ƙasa. Don gina jaririyar jariri yakan dauka kimanin watanni shida. Zai yiwu a motsa bayyanar jariran tare da taimakon magungunan hormonal - cytokinin manna.
  • Daga zuriya. Mafi yawan lokutan cinyewa kuma hanya mai mahimmanci don girma kochids. Tsaba na da tsawon watanni 8, sannan a cike da shi a cikin bakararre, a ɗaure tare da gansakuka ko aka cika da agar agar. Idan iri ya tsiro (yana ɗaukar daga watanni 3 zuwa shekara), an dasa bishiyoyi a kan cakuda da haushi na Pine da za su iya jira don sake dawowa cikin tukunya kimanin shekara guda.

Matsalolin da matsaloli

  1. Idan babu rashin ruwa da haske, buds ko ganye zasu iya fada.
  2. Lokacin da matsanancin watering ganye zama sluggish.
  3. Idan abun ciki na zafin jiki ya wuce, ganye zai yi tsalle.
  4. Idan orchid ba ta yi fure ba, dole ne a shirya "damuwa ta zafi" a gare ta - ƙara bambanci tsakanin rana da rana yanayin zafi ta hanyar digiri 8-10.
  5. Lokacin da asalinsu suka dubi tukunya, wannan yana nufin cewa shuka ba shi da isasshen wuri kuma yana buƙatar kwashe shi cikin babban akwati.

Cututtuka da kwari

A lokacin da yake girma a gida, ana kawo damuwa ta hanyar kwari da maychids kuma yana iya zama marasa lafiya.. Ka yi la'akari da cewa cutar da lafiyar furanni:

  • schitovka (ƙananan launi da ƙuri'a suna bayyana akan ganye);
  • cherts (ganye juya rawaya da kuma fada a kashe);
  • whitefly (shuka dehydrated).
  • powdery mildew (furanni an rufe farin Bloom);
  • anthracnose (halin bayyanar launin ruwan kasa);
  • rot

Muna bada shawara mu duba bidiyon game da kwari da cututtuka:

Asiri

  1. Don kula da zafi mai kyau, ana bada shawarar fasaha mai ban sha'awa na musamman: an sanya tukunyar furanni a cikin akwati da aka cika da ruwa a lokacin da aka ciyar da ƙasa (bayan minti 3-5), ana sauraron akwati kuma an sanya shi a kan grid don yalwa ruwa mai yawa ta cikin ramuka.
  2. Orchid yana buƙatar dasa shuki a matsakaici mai zurfi, tun lokacin da buds suka fara juyawa a tsire-tsire, kuma a tsire-tsire tsire-tsire ba shi da karfi a tukunya. A cikin waɗannan lokuta, girma yana jinkirta.
  3. Zai fi kyau a sake gina wani orchid a cikin wani sabon ci gaba, lokacin da ya ɓace kuma ya huta har wani lokaci. Dole ne a cire duk wuraren lalacewa da laushi kuma aiwatar da yanke tare da gawayi. Bayan dasawa a cikin mako ba'a bada shawara don shayar da shuka (bayan kwanaki 3 za ka iya fara spraying).
  4. Za a iya sanya alkukin tafarnuwa a cikin tukunya don tsoratar da kwari.
  5. Tushen Orchid yana cikin photosynthesis, don haka wata tukunya mai haske zai zama mafi kyau mafi zaɓi don dasa shuki iyawa.
  6. Noma ya kamata a fara tare da cututtukan cututtuka da kuma daidaitattun kulawa da jinsuna.
  7. An kawo riguna mafi kyau a cikin watanni na ci gaban aiki tare da watering.

Kammalawa

Girma da kuma yawancin furanni iri-iri na orchids ba su bar masu shahararrun masoya na aikin lambu na cikin gida ba. Kyakkyawan orchids na bukatar kulawa mai kyau. da kuma buƙatu don girma yanayi, ba tare da abin da shuka iya mutuwa.

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