Dabbobi masu ban sha'awa ga yankin Moscow

Mafi kyaun maki na cherries ga yankin Moscow

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A cikin ƙasashen Turai da yawa, kalmomin "ceri" da "mai juyayi mai juyayi" an fassara su a cikin hanya ɗaya. Kuma babu wani abu mai ban mamaki a wannan, domin suna da alaka da juna. Amma har ma irin wannan haɗin tsakanin al'adu ba su iya canza juyayi a cikin dadi ba.

Sweet ceri za a iya gani ba a duk lambu a kan shafukan. A cikin shekarun da suka gabata, masu shayarwa sun fara kirkiro iri iri daban-daban na kyan zuma a yankin Moscow da sauran yankuna na Rasha.

Za mu fada game da wasu daga cikinsu daga bisani, kuma za mu ƙayyade kalmomin saukowa da siffofi na kowanne sauti.

Bayani na mafi kyau iri-iri masu ban sha'awa: rassan su, 'ya'yan itatuwa, abubuwan amfani da rashin amfani da kowanne daga cikinsu

Ƙasa mai kyau da yalwar rana da zafi suna buƙata don shuka bishiyoyi. Amma wurare masu sanyi na Moscow ba su dace da ita ba, sabili da haka masana kimiyya sun samo sababbin nau'o'in sanyi. Mafi shahararrun sun hada da: Bryansk Rose, Iput, Fatezh, Tyutchevka, Revna.

Bryansk ruwan hoda ceri, mene ne?

'Ya'yan itãcen Bryansk ruwan hoda ne masu matsakaici a matsakaici daga 4 zuwa 6 grams. Suna zagaye da siffar, kimanin kimanin 20-22 mm a diamita. Launi na berries yana da launin fure, kuma jiki yana rawaya. A ciki akwai dutse mai launin dutse, yana kimanin 7-8% na jimlar cherries. Girman da kauri daga cikin kara shine matsakaici. Daɗin kuɗin 'ya'yan itace mai dadi kuma m.

Wannan iri-iri marigayi ripening. Fruiting yana faruwa a cikin shekaru 4-5 na itacen. Yana da amfanin gona mai kai, wanda ke buƙatar ƙarin pollinators. Tsire-tsire yana faruwa a farkon shekaru goma na watan Mayu. Gyarawa yana faruwa a tsakiyar watan Yuli. Matsakaicin yawan amfanin ƙasa ya kai kimanin 78 c / ha, amma wani lokacin maimaita.

Itace ba itace tsayi ba, game da 2-2.6 m, tare da yawancin rassan rassan. Shin koda yana da kullun ko maras kyau. Ganye na bishiya suna kore da manyan. A cikin inflorescence akwai kananan kananan furanni 3, pistil da stigma suna samuwa a daidai wannan matakin, kofin yana cikin siffar gilashi, sassan ba su da wani aiki. Tsawon stamens da pistils yana da tsawo.

Fruiting da dama a kan bouquet twigs. Harbe daga launin ruwan kasa tare da launin toka.

Wannan iri-iri mai dadi yana da rago daya: rashin iyawa don yin rikici. Amma hakan ba haka ba ne, saboda akwai wasu bishiyoyi da zasu iya lalata itacen, wadannan sun hada da irin wadannan "Iput", "Tyutchevka", "Revna". Ga babban kyakkyawan aiki sun hada da:

  • High kasancewa na hunturu sanyi.
  • Kyau mai dadi yana da tsayayya ga cututtuka na fungal a cikin wannan nau'in.
  • Rot yayi rauni sosai akan berries na itacen.
  • Yana jure yanayin sufuri a dogon nesa.
  • Berries ba crack lokacin da ruwa da kuma rigar weather.

Cultivar Iput, halayensa na ainihi, bayanai akan dabi'u masu kyau da kuma mummunan halayen

'Ya'yan itacen suna kimanin kashi 5.2-5.5. A siffar berries ne zagaye, tare da girma: nisa, tsawo, kauri ne game da 20-22 mm. Cherry burgundy launi, kuma a cikakken balaga kusan baki.

Yana da matsala mai tsayi da gajere. Akwai ƙashi har zuwa 0.3 grams na nauyi, launin ruwan kasa mai launin launi, har ma da rabu da ɓangaren litattafan almara. 'Ya'yan suna da kyau sosai a bayyanar, m da kuma mai dadi, da tushe daga abin da ya zo sosai sosai.

Wannan zaki mai ban sha'awa yana nufin farkon irin maturation. Fruiting fara riga a 4-5 shekara. Kamar nau'ukan da suka gabata, yana da amfani sosai, saboda haka ana bukatar wasu nau'in pollinator. Flowering faruwa a farkon wuri. Tsarin karshe na ƙarshe yana faruwa a tsakiyar watan Yuni. Yawancin itatuwan yana da kashi 80 a kowace hectare, kuma a wasu shekaru ya kai kimanin mita 145 a kowace hectare.

Yanayin al'adu yana da tsawo a tsawon mita 3.5-4. Kambiyar itace ita ce mai yawa kuma mai yawa-tsalle, kuma yana da nau'i na dala. Buds oval, babban. Filaye ne mafi elongated da duhu kore a launi, kuma akwai kuma sau biyu serration.

Flowers a cikin inflorescence 3 kuma 4, farin. Hannun hanyoyi da pistils daidai ne a kan wannan matakin. Ba su da wani jigilar sakonni. Tsawon pistils da stamens daidai ne. A kan rassan rassan ya fito ne.

Ga ƙarancin wannan nau'i-nau'i, da na baya, ita ce ta rashin iyawa don yin rikiciWannan yana buƙatar karin bishiyoyin pollinator.

Amfanin Wannan iri-iri ne:

  • Yana jure wa hunturu da damuwa.
  • Kyakkyawan ingancin kyakkyawan juriya ne ga cututtukan fungal.
  • Kowace shekara yana ba da girbi mai kyau da matsakaici.
  • Kwayoyin irin wadannan bishiyoyi suna jure wa yanayin sanyi sosai.
  • Wannan nau'i mai dadi mai dadi ne na farkon lokacin ripening.
  • A plus shi ne gaskiyar cewa ɓangaren litattafan almara na berries ne mai yawa.
  • Yana da kyau transportability.

Yana da ban sha'awa a karanta game da kaka pruning na dadi ceri.

Babban fannoni na zaki da ceri "Fatezh"

Tsayin bishiyoyi ya kai mita 3-4. Yana da kambi mai laushi na itace a siffar kwallon, rassan ya shimfiɗa. Ganyayyaki suna da yawa manyan, nuna, kore ko duhu kore, kadan haske. Buds ba bambanta da wasu nau'in nau'in halitta ba. Da yawa furanni a cikin inflorescence, waxanda suke da fari.

Wannan nau'i mai dadi mai sauƙi shine matsakaici-lokaci don balagar 'ya'yan itatuwa. Zaka iya gwada farkon berries a shekara ta biyar na rayuwar itacen. Ba zai iya gurɓata kansa ba, saboda haka ƙarin nau'o'in pollinators ana buƙatar, wanda yayi girma a lokaci guda kamar ceri. Domin mafi kyawun pollination, zaka iya amfani da maganin zuma.

Lokacin flowering na itace ya fada a tsakiyar ko farkon watan Mayu. Ƙarshen ƙarshe yana faruwa a watan Yuli. Rashin yawan amfanin ƙasa daga itace daya shi ne kilogiram 50 a kowace shekara, wanda yayi kadan.

Berries ne matsakaici a cikin size, yin la'akari 4-5 grams. Ɗaya daga cikin nau'o'in, nau'in da ke kewaye da su suna da launi mai launin launuka. Jiki yana da dadi ƙwarai, yana rabu da dutse sosai. 'Ya'yan itãcen marmari daga tushe sun fito da kyau. Stone ne 5-6% na jimlar nauyin Berry. Abincin yana cike da dadi da ƙwarewa.

Abinda aka danganci rashin amfani wannan mai dadi:

  • Babu wani damar yin nazari na kanta, saboda haka, wasu al'adu suna tsiro a lokaci guda kamar itacen ceri.
  • Matalauta iska.
  • Irin wannan nau'in mai dadi mai dadi yana jure yanayin ciyawa, don haka kana buƙatar tsaftace tsauni na ƙasa mai tsabta.

To tabbatacce dalilai na wannan itace sun haɗa da fasali:

  • High sanyi juriya.
  • Wannan mai dadi ceri ne mai girma-yawan amfanin ƙasa iri-iri.
  • Ba ya buƙatar m watering.
  • Wannan iri-iri yana da tsayayya ga irin wannan cututtuka na naman gwari kamar: moniliosis da coccomycosis.
  • Cherry yana da kyau gabatarwa.
  • Wannan itace itace kyakkyawa na lambun ku.
  • A ripeness na berries ne mai kyau quality.

Dabbobi daban-daban iri na Tyutchevka. Waɗanne siffofi ne, abubuwan amfani da rashin amfani da wannan al'ada?

Wannan itace yana da kambi mai ban sha'awa. Buds ne ƙananan, matsakaiciyar girman, a cikin nau'in mazugi Ganye, mai kaifi zuwa sama da kananan kwakwalwa, suna da launi da launi kuma basu da tasiri akan farfajiya. Petioles suna da tsintsiya da gajeren lokaci, wanda akwai alamarsu. Tsayin itace yana da matsakaici, wanda zai iya ce talakawa.

A cikin kowane jigon lokacin da furanni akwai furanni 4, ramin yana da siffar saucer, ƙananan dabbar suka taɓa juna, ana amfani da su a daidai wannan matakin, calyx yana da nau'i mai gilashi kaɗan, nunawa na sokin ya ɓace. Pistil da stamens na daidai tsawon.

Nauyin gwargwadon ƙwayar da aka tattauna da ƙwarƙara mai dadi ya bambanta daga 5.2 grams zuwa 7.5 grams. A diamita na berries ne 20-23 mm, yadu taso keya. An bayyana launin duhu ko launin burgundy tare da kananan dige. Yana da matsakaicin matsakaici mai tsayi. Stone, nuna a saman, yayi kimanin 0.31-0.32 grams, launin ruwan kasa mai launi. Daga ɓangaren litattafan almara an rabu da shi kullum. Jiki shine ja mai kyau. A berries suna da kyau sosai, mai dadi da kuma m.

Cherry blossoms latti, sabili da haka, 'ya'yan itatuwa ripen da. Itacen ya fara kawo kayan farko a shekara ta biyar na dasa. Babban yawan amfanin ƙasa yana da kashi 97 a kowace hectare, kuma a cikin shekaru masu yawan gaske yana kai kimanin 270 a kowace hectare. Wannan al'ada ne mai gurɓatawa.

Wannan al'ada ba shi da lahani maras kyau, sai dai berries a cikin yanayi mai sanyi zai iya fashe amma ba kullum ba, wanda yake da kyau ga tarihinta kuma yana da dadi ga lambu.

Gaskiya gefe ceri "Tyutchevka", rubuta su cikin jerin masu biyowa:

  • Cherry yana da tasiri mai kyau, wanda zai ba da damar sufuri mai nisa.
  • Tsayayya da cututtuka daban-daban waɗanda zasu iya kai farmaki kan wannan itace.
  • Wannan nau'i-nau'i ne mai rikici, wanda yake rinjayar yawan amfanin ƙasa, amma idan akwai karin pollinators, ba zai cutar da shi ba.
  • Cherry "Tyutchevka" yana da iri-iri iri-iri.
  • Berries suna da dadi, m dandano.
  • Yana jure yanayin hunturu.

Kuma na karshe iri-iri, wanda muka bayyana a cikin wannan labarin, ake kira "Revna"

'Ya'yan itãcen wannan iri-iri ne mafi girma a matsakaici, ba su da kananan berries ko manyan waɗanda suke aunawa har zuwa 5 grams. Amma akwai wasu ƙananan yin la'akari har zuwa 8 grams. Tsayin zagaye mai tsawo, mai tsawo kamu goma sha tara da kauri, da kuma mintuna 20 mm.

Kayan siffofin wadannan nau'o'in suna da siffar fuka mai maɗaukaka da zagaye na sama. Shirye-shiryen launi shine burgundy kuma kusan baki a cikakke. Tsire-tsire na Berry yana da duhu, mai tsananin gaske. Tsawon tsaminin shine matsakaici. Ƙashi daga ɓangaren litattafan almara ya raba sosai, yana da launin ruwan kasa mai haske. 'Ya'yan itãcen marmari dadi ceri "Revna" sosai m da mai dadi.

Wannan nau'i mai dadi yana farawa a cikin shekaru 4 ko 5 na rayuwar itace. Flowering fara a na biyu rabin May, amma berries ripen marigayi, a ƙarshen Yuni ko farkon Yuli.

Kyau mai dadi ne mai gurɓataccen mutum, amma sauran masu jefa kuri'a kamar Raditsa, Venyaminova, Iput kuma suna da tasirin gaske. Yawancin yawan amfanin ƙasa ya kamata a girbe a kimanin 110 c / ha, kuma a kan kusan 75 c / ha.

Tree ke tsiro da sauri, matsakaici na tsawo, kambi ba shi da kyau a cikin nau'i na dala. Dukan 'ya'yan itatuwa an kafa su a kan rassan bishiyoyi. Ganyayyaki suna cikin siffar m, duhu mai launi a launi, fata su ne lokacin farin ciki, tsayin petiole gajere ne. Ƙananan furannin furanni 4, mai siffar saucer, wanda aka samo kyauta ne daga juna. Pistils da stamens na daidai tsawon. Kamar irin abubuwan da suka gabata, stigma na pistil yana da irin wannan tsawo kamar mahaukaci.

Babu wani halayen kirki wanda zamu iya magana akan.

Gaskiya al'amura da zan so in yi magana akan:

  • Abu na farko da zan so in ambaci shi ne ingancin 'ya'yan itatuwa, duka a cikin bayyanar da dandano.
  • Wannan iri-iri yana jure wa harkokin sufuri na nisa.
  • Winter hardiness na wannan al'ada ne quite high.
  • Hakanan, cututtuka daban-daban na naman gwari bazai shafar wannan al'adar ba.
  • Sunburn kusan ba zai shafe itacen ba.

Saukowa na yankunan Moscow: bayyana duk asirin

Dukkan bishiyoyi, ba tare da togiya ba, suna son ƙasa mai kyau da hasken rana. Kasashen da ba wajibi ne su dasa wannan al'ada ba ne loam da sandstone, kuma wurin ya kamata a kwantar da hankali. Har ila yau wajibi ne a cikin gidan zafi kuyi girma da yawa irin cherries ko cherries na wannan lokacin ripening, domin itatuwa su pollinate juna.

Saukowa Ƙwararrun Cherries a yankin Moscow dole ne a samar a cikin bazara shekaru. Don shirya ƙasa don dasa shuki, kana bukatar ka san cewa tushen asalin bishiya ya kwanta a zurfin 30-80 cm, kuma a tsaye a 2 m Saboda haka, mafi kyawun zaɓi zai kasance kamar haka: yi shuka a noma maimakon ramukan a shafin.

Rashin digi shine kashi uku na cike da cakuda ƙasa daga ƙasa da takin mai magani. Kafin sauka a kasa na rami ya kafa shafi. Bayan haka, a tsakiyar rami, suna yin karamin dutse, suna sanya nau'i a bisan su kuma sun rataye shi a kan iyaka, sannan su binne rami, su bar 5-6 cm a sama da farfajiyar. A ƙarshen dasa, ruwa da ciyawa.

Dogon da ake bukata tsakanin seedlings ya zama mita 3-5. Zai fi kyau su yi nisa a tsakanin su, tun lokacin da balagagge zasu kare kansu.

Ayyuka na kula da cherries girma a cikin yankin Moscow: tattauna watering, pruning da taki, da kuma yadda za a hana cututtuka da kwari

Wadannan albarkatu ba su da kyau ga weeds, don haka kana bukatar ka ci gaba da gudanar da ayyukan tsabtatawa a jikin itacen.

Don kare albarkatu daga tsuntsaye, dole ne a rufe amfanin gona ta hanyar tarin kaya na musamman.

Bishiyoyi suna fama da cututtukan cututtuka daban-daban, amma ana amfani da matakan tsaro don tabbatarwa: gyara pruning, yin amfani da suturar bakararre, sauƙi sauƙaƙa na ƙasa a kowace shekara, yaduwa tare da abubuwa masu mahimmanci.

Shayar wadannan bishiyoyi da wuya, sau uku sau uku a kowace kakar.

Dasa tsakanin cherries daban-daban na shuke-shuke kare su daga hunturu frosts. Har ila yau a kowane kaka kana buƙatar iska da bishiyoyi da takarda mai laushi kuma a cikin hunturu don spud snow saboda kada su daskare.

Don ciyar da bishiyoyi suna amfani da man fetur na ruwa, da takin mai magani don amfanin gona da amfanin gona na Berry. Sai kawai a cikin gangar taki ba a sanya shi ba, kuma gaba.

Kowace lokacin bazara ka buƙatar bishiyoyi, cire waxannan cututtukan, bushe da rassan rassan. Har ila yau, bazara da kaka suna bukatar don tsabtace tsintsiya.

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